Place slides in working phosphate buffer or trizmaferbuf 2070 mmoll. The slide is immersed in a freshly prepared 5% giemsa stain. Giemsa stain is used as the standard stain for haematopoietic cell nuclei and platelets. It is important that the wright giemsa stain be kept tightly sealed in coplin jar when not in use and be replaced when water artifact. Giemsa stain is a mixture of methylene blue, eosin, and azure b.
Erythrocytes stain pink, platelets show a light pale pink,lymphocyte cytoplasm stains sky blue, monocyte cytoplasm stains pale blue, and leukocyte nuclear chromatin stains magenta. The giemsa stain is used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria on blood smears. The first consideration is the correct preparation of the smear. Staining of blood parasites other than malaria parasites species of microfilariae method a. Giemsa11 or g11 is a specialized staining technique utilized to 1 differentiate heterochromatic regions of human chromosomes, 2 identify the presence of human chromosomes in humanrodent hybrid cells, and 3 identify humanrodent translocation products in hybrid cells. Sections stained at 37c for several hours, staining time assessed by microscopical examination, produce better results than sections stained at 60c for a shorter period. We further tested the effects of variations of buffer composition and concentration, dye concentration, and staining time. The dip method is a quick staining method that uses a modified wright giemsa stain buffered in methanol at ph 6. Giemsa stain is a buffered thiazineeosinate solution designed to provide coloration of blood cells similar to the original product described by giemsa. Dry the slides in upright position at room temperature 6. Fix slides in 100% methanol for 30 s and rinse off in tap water. Introduction quality assurance many of the stains that are described in this national standard method nsm are commercially available. Giemsa stain definition of giemsa stain by merriamwebster. Giemsa stain is also used to visualize chromosomes.
It is less well known whether accuracy of parasitaemia assessment is equally accurate with the latter method. Giemsa staining, giemsa solution was used undiluted and filtered prior to use. Giemsa banding gtg banding thermo fisher scientific kr. Direct deionized water supplied at a flow rate of 1500 mlmin. Technical recommendations and best practice guidelines. A detailed protocol for characterizing the murine c1498 cell. Diffquik is a commercial romanowsky stain variant used to rapidly stain and differentiate a variety of pathology specimens. Giemsa staining of blood smeared slide 1 fix slides in 100% methanol for 30 and rinse off in tap water. Blood sample specimen collection and handling for clinical samples follow appropriate techniques for handling specimens as per established guidelines 1,2. The delicately balanced chemical composition of the stain, once enigmatic, is defined. Differential quik stain kit modified giemsa technical. This manuscript provides a technical procedure that can be used to characterize c1498 cell cultures in vitro and the acute leukemia induced in mice after their injection. It is used to diagnose diseases, such as malaria, which are caused by parasitic infections the collected blood sample is smeared onto a glass slide and stained with giemsa stain.
Giemsa stain safety data sheet according to federal register vol. However, the lg cocktail staining procedure of airdried smears require no additional fixation as in mgg stain and can be. It was primarily designed for the demonstration of malarial parasites in blood smears, but it is also employed in histology for routine examination of blood smear. Giemsa stock solution procured for national programmes is standardized to minimize frequent adjustments to sops on staining. Giemsa reagent improves with age, expiry is unimportant. Giemsa stain is a type of romanowsky stain, named after gustav giemsa, a german chemist who created a dye solution. What is the procedure for stock giemsa stain preparation. To ensure that proper staining results have been achieved, a positive smear malaria should be included with each new batch of working giemsa stain. Wrightgiemsastain is a modifiedromanowsky stain used for differentially staining the cellular elements of blood. We investigated the capability of individual thiazins in giemsa mixtures methylene blue and azures a, b, and c and of two related dyes toluidine blue and thionin to produce gbanding. The staining procedure requires multiple steps, large volumes of alcohol and expensive stains. Shut off ignition sources, provide ventilation, and wear respiratory protection. The colorful story of the development of the wrightgiemsa stain is retold.
Modified giemsa11 staining protocol for chromosomes of. Preparation of blood smear with different staining method dr. The diffquik procedure is based on a modification of the wright giemsa stain pioneered by harleco in the 1970s, and has advantages over the routine wright giemsa staining technique in that it reduces the 4minute process into a much shorter operation and allows for selective increased eosinophilic or basophilic staining depending upon the time. The slide is then placed in the staining jar containing the gurrs stain and buffer for 5 minutes. Make a thin film of the material on a clean glass slide, using a sterile loop or swab for viscous specimens. The higher the staining temperature, the greater the intensity of blue staining, but without the equivalently increased red staining see technical point 2 below. The diffquik procedure is based on a modification of the wrightgiemsa stain pioneered by harleco in the 1970s, and has advantages over the routine. Differential quik stain kit modified giemsa technical data. The giemsa stain is one of the best stains for malaria and other blood parasites and also satisfactory as a routine blood stain to stain the peripheral blood smear for the examinations of blood film under the microscope. Used in haematology, giemsa staining allows differentiating between the different types of blood cells.
Wrights stain is used as staining solution for blood films. Giemsa staining of blood smears and estimation of parasitemia. Giemsa stain for microscopy the universal stain covering hematology, histology, cytology and bacteriology giemsas staining solution composed of methylene blue, azure and eosin is one of the most popular microscopic stains, commonly used in hematology, histology, cytology and bacteriology for in vitro diagnostic ivd use. The differential quik stain kit is a high quality, rapid turnaround time staining kit that serves many purposes in the costconscious laboratory environment. Introducing even a minute amount of methyl alcohol into the stain dilution will interfere with the lysing of the rbcs in the thick films. Procedure for staining pour leishmans stain dropwise counting the drops on the slide and wait for 2 minutes. Stain the entire slide with diluted giemsa stain 1. Giemsa stain definition of giemsa stain by medical. Giemsa stain preparation stock solution of giemsa stain is prepared by mixing 0. Modified giemsa staining for rapid diagnosis of malaria. Giemsa banding gtg banding thermo fisher scientific us.
Stain with giemsa working solution for 12 minutes 4. Dramas are replayed, secrets are exposed, and laurels are properly returned to scientists long forgotten. Quality control to ensure that proper staining results have been achieved, if a positive smear malaria is available it may be included with each new batch of working giemsa stain. Apart being the reference method of haematology, it has become a routine stain of diagnostic cytopathology for the study of airdried preparations lymph node imprints, centrifuged body fluids and fine needle aspirations. Mount the slides with a coverslip using dpx any modifications to the staining procedure working solutions may affect the staining result, and are subject to precise method. Midas iiiplus automated stainer for hematology and bacteriology. Leishman giemsa cocktail as a new, potentially useful. A detailed protocol for characterizing the murine c1498. Giemsas solution is a mixture of methylene blue, eosin, and azure b. Giemsa stain is a classical blood film stain for peripheral blood smears and bone marrow specimens. A blood film or peripheral blood smear is a thin layer of blood smeared on a microscope slide and then stained in such a way to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
Giemsa stain definition of giemsa stain by medical dictionary. Air dry, then heat fix the slide by passing it several times through a flame the slide should not become too hot to touch. Dried blood smears may be stored at rt for several days before use. Giemsa stain is mainly used for staining of peripheral blood smears and specimens obtained from the bone marrow.
The differential quik stain kit may be used for fine needle aspirations, cytology, blood smears. Giemsa staining hi media laboratories, india for detection of trichomonas vaginalis. It is also used to stain the smears prepared by fine needle aspiration cytology fnac. It is important that the wrightgiemsa stain be kept tightly sealed in coplin jar when not in use and be replaced when water artifact. For all other sheathed microfilariae, proceed only to step iv. Giemsa stain collect 34 drops of blood in 5 ml of tissue culture medium gibco pbmax karyotyping medium, cat. A0885 description gustav giemsa published his famous procedure more than 100 years ago 1 in 1904. When blood filmsare stained as described in the procedure, the.
Staining procedures may vary according to the material under study, particularly for tissue sections. Staining with giemsa stain can be done with a rapid 10% working solution method or a slow 3% working solution method. Contain if possible, and prevent runoff into drains and sewers. It is most frequently used for blood films and cytopathological smears, including fine needle aspirates.
If aequous staining procedures will be used fix blood smear 3 min in cold meoh and dry 10 min on the air before proceeding. Thick smears should be left in buffer for 5 minutes. The stain is usually prepared from commercially available giemsa powder. Comparison of wet mount examination with giemsa staining. If microfilariae of loa loa, follow steps iii, iv, v and vi because the sheath of loa loa does not stain with giemsa. The colorful story of the development of the wright giemsa stain is retold. Fixate the previously dried blood smears by immersing them for 5 min in methanol histanol m. It is specific for the phosphate groups of dna and attaches itself to where there are high amounts of adeninethymine bonding. Wash with clean buffered water for 2, 5 and 2 minutes 5. The classical staining procedure requires between 30 and. A thin film of the specimen on a microscope slide is fixed in pure methanol for 30 seconds, by immersing it or by putting a few drops of methanol on the slide. Giemsa stain solution 3 section 6 accidental release measures general information.
Slides are immersed in the stain in a coplin jar for a user determined length of time. Preparations of giemsa stain in laboratory hematology. Morphology is variable, and ring, rod, and ameboid forms of babesia parasites may be seen fig. Giemsa solution microscopy grade giemsa stock solution for staining of section preparations, blood smears, slices, cytological preparations product no. Giemsa staining the prepared smear was fixed by immersion in methanol for one minute and allowed to dry. Phenotypic and functional analyses are performed using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, cytochemistry and maygrunwald giemsa staining. Intended use performance characteristics solutions are for. The fixative does not allow any further change in the cells and makes them adhere to the glass slide. The giemsa blood smear test is a test to detect blood parasites.
Giemsa and may grunwald solutions are intended for use in staining blood films or bone marrow films. After the staining time has elapsed, the slide is removed from the jar and rinsed by sequential dipping into the two gurrs buffer rinsing jars. Then click on the thumbnails below for more information about the procedure. Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in section 8. Staining procedures scope of document this test procedure contains the methods for the staining procedures commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories for the identification of pathogens. Slides were stained with concentrated giemsa for 1 min followed by 2 x 1 min washes with ph 6. Pour 40 ml of working giemsa buffer into a second staining jar.
Earlier procedures, though useful, are problematic and may fail to yield results. Wash by briefly dipping the slide in and out of a coplin jar of buffered water one or two dips. Wrightgiemsasolution is intended for use in staining blood filmsor bone marrow films. Giemsa stain definition is a stain consisting of eosin and a blue dye and used chiefly in the differential staining of blood films called also giemsa, giemsas stain. Giemsas stain, stock solution obtain from commercial sources. Giemsa s solution is a mixture of methylene blue, eosin, and azure b. The polychromatic staining solutions such as wright stain contain methylene blue and eosin.
The determination of acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa by single giemsas staining technique is an essential tool to evaluate fertilizing capacity of the semen. Microscopy of peripheral blood thin and thick films remains the reference for malaria diagnosis. Remove thin smear slides and rinse by dipping 34 times in the giemsa buffer. This time may vary somewhat, depending on the strength of the stain used. The blood films stained with giemsa or romanowsky stain show ringlike intraerythrocytic parasites. Comparing leishman and giemsa staining for the assessment. Technical recommendations and best practice guidelines for. The procedure of giemsa staining varies as per the purpose of staining that means whether the staining is done for the examination of blood cells or to find the parasites in the blood smear and accordingly the blood smears are prepared as thin blood films or thick blood films. Maygrunwaldgiemsa mgg stain is a romanowskytype, polychromatic stain as those of giemsa, leishman and wright. These basic and acidic dyes induce multiple colours when applied to cells. Immerse the fixated smear in the working giemsa solution for 1520 min. The diluted stain keeps well, but is best made up fresh each time.12 135 1478 1063 1432 415 1475 677 399 1123 731 1216 418 1416 84 1395 615 779 485 286 226 371 551 1024 1495 720 853 104 242 271 244 1110 342