The nuclear fuel cycle in order for a nuclear energy plant to use uranium as fuel, the element must undergo a careful manufacturing process. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty npt of 1970 is the most adhered to international arms control treaty. The reader is cautioned that should there be any discrepancies between the english and french versions of this publication, the english takes precedence as the original text. Considering the high prices of uranium ore, the closed cycle looks appealing for the times. The output fuel is deposited within geological repositories, kept from further reprocessing of the fuel. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle usnrc technical training center 310 rev 4 fuel cycle processes directed selfstudy course 15 used for most reactors. The nuclear fuel cycle updated august 2010 z the nuclear fuel cycle is the series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. A nuclear fuel cycle is the path that we put heavy atoms through in order to extract energy from them, starting at the day we find them and ending when their wastes have decayed to stability and are no longer dangerous. In this module, students will be introduced to the basic nuclear fuel cycle including the different processes involved and the basic physics of the fundamental components prerequisites. Once enriched, fuel is formed into ceramic fuel pellets. This video is part of the nssep nuclear fuel cycle module. Redox process hexone methyl isobutyl ketone used as the extractant immiscible with water used to purify uranium ore concentrates et t bth l d lt l it textracts both uranyl and plutonyl nitrates selectively from fission products plutonium oxidized to pu vi for highest recovery u vi and pu vi coextracted, then pu is reduced to pu iii by ferrous sulfamate and. Uranium containing below about 7% of the uranium235 isotope requires the presence of a moderator for criticality. What is nuclear fusion nuclear power for everybody.
It starts with the mining of unused nuclear materials from the nature and ends with the safe disposal of used nuclear material in the nature. Yang graduated from the seoul national university with a b. Spent fuel disposal multiple barrier system in the oncethrough cycle spent fuel is intended for disposal with no intention for retrieval. From a technical perspective, there will be the lessons learned such as. The range and depth of subject areas can be adjusted to accommodate the interest and background of the participants. Sustainable nuclear power needs a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Myung seung yang youngsan university, rok october 19, 2016. This is sometimes called an open fuel cycle or a throwaway cycle. In the united states, uranium is processed in different chemical and physical forms to create nuclear fuel.
Pdf nuclear power has unresolved challenges in longterm management of radioactive wastes. As illustrated below, the nuclear fuel cycle typically includes the. Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering 1st edition. Introduction to nuclear fuelintroduction to nuclear fuel. Uranium is a naturallyoccurring element that can be mined relatively easily. The past few years have seen some major developments in uk government policy related to the nuclear fuel cycle, culminating in the publication, through the government chief scientists office, of a series of documents that set out the nuclear landscape in the uk up to 2050 and beyond. Basic principles are fully explained, and topics such as environmental radioactivityboth naturally occurring and manmadeand safety issues are explored. It is important to emphasize that producing nuclear energy requires more. A variety of techniques are used to locate uranium, such as airborne radiometric surveys, chemical sampling of groundwater and soils, and exploratory drilling to understand the underlying geology. Pyrosfr closed fuel cycle 24 pwr spent fuel electroreduction electrorefining electrowinning sfr fuel fabrication sfr u,pu,mao 2 oxygen removal uranium recovery u,pu,ma corecovery sfr metal fuel burning of pu, ma o2 u u,pu,ma u,pu,ma u recycle save disposal space by a factor of 100 shorten the management period to a few hundred years. The open fuel cycle consists of mining, enriching, and storing uranium fuel.
The 239 pu and other actinides are part of these wastes. Security implications of the nuclear fuel cycle october 2014 in 202014, the james martin center for nonproliferation studies cns at the monterey institute of international studies miis convened a group of distinguished american and japanese experts on nonproliferation to examine the security implications of the nuclear fuel cycle. The closed nuclear fuel cycle for the gas cooled fast reactor. The nuclear fuel cycle starts with exploration for uranium and the development of mines to extract uranium ore. Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle 2 5. Reprocessing is currently not taking place in the u. The bush administration initiated programs with the goal of commercially recycling fissile material from spent nuclear fuel snf into new fuel assemblies, but failed to attract support in congress. Nuclear fuel cycle the nuclear fuel cycle is a process used to describe how natural uranium is used to produce nuclear energy.
From the uranium mine to waste disposal 7 the nuclear fuel cycle from the uranium mine to waste disposal 7 the nuclear fuel cycle 8 9 into uranium hexafluoride uf 6, which becomes a gas when heated to 56c. Nuclear fuel cycle can be defined as the set of processes to make use of nuclear materials and to return it to normal state. Its purpose is to provide the iaea, its member states and public users with current, consistent, and readily accessible information on existing, closed and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world. It consists of steps in the front end, which are the preparation of the fuel, steps in the service period in which the fuel is used during reactor operation, and steps in the back end, which are necessary to safely manage, contain, and either reprocess or dispose of. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the. The gaseous diffusion process consists in passing gaseous uf 6through a long series of barriers formed by membranes with. The raw material for todays nuclear fuel is uranium. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The subject of nuclear power is fraught with controversy, and it is often discussed with an inadequate understanding of the science behind todays reactor technology. Environmental considerations airtiny amounts of radioactive elements, such as argon, krypton, xenon, iodine and tritium a radioactive form of hydrogen get into the air during the normal operations of nuclear power plants.
The nuclear fuel cycle and the nuclear nonproliferation treaty npt. The fuel cycle used adds only depleted uranium and minor actinides during reprocessing. The authors of this report gratefully acknowledge the doene office of fuel cycle technologies for authorizing this study on the relative benefits of nuclear fuel cycle options relative to the current u. Annual average real wholesale electricity price in south australia, 201415 prices 218.
The nuclear fuel cycle typically involves the following steps. This tool breaks the cost of investing in nuclear power into its component parts and considers the price of three. The nuclear fuel cycle refers to all activities that occur in the production of nuclear energy. The uranium goes through a series of steps from being mined as a raw material through its life as a useful source of energy and beyond. A nuclear power program would take several years to establish, granting south australians a wide choice of nuclear technology options to select from. To become the fuel used in nuclear reactors, uranium goes through five main steps.
The temelin nuclear power plant, south bohemia, czech republic. The nuclear fuel cycle information system nfcis is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The advanced fuel cycle initiative and global nuclear energy partnership programs background from the first introduction of nuclear power, the management of spent nuclear fuel, especially the highly radioactive components, has been a concern. Pdf comparison and screening of nuclear fuel cycle. Experience shows that similar fuel cycle costs will be associated with a boiling water reactor bwr.
The development of ever more integrated processes across the many stages of the nuclear fuel cycle therefore confronts plant manufacturers and operators with formidable challenges. The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The book covers all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle from cradle to grave. A technical background is desirable but not a prerequisite for this course. However, the change for the closed nuclear fuel cycle demands a restructuring of reactor design, particularly the reuse of spent nuclear fuel snf. Students taking this module should have a working knowledge of basic algebra and. It is mined in a number of countries and must be processed before it can be used as fuel for a nuclear. The fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium is particularly interesting because of its potential of providing energy for the future.
The gfr600 is a design by the cea for the gas cooled fast reactor and this design has been adopted by the partners of the european fp6 gcfrstrep gcfr speci. Gascooled nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle abstract. The production of nuclear fuel can serve both peaceful and military purposes. To identify and provide an analysis of issues and options relevant to multilateral approaches to the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. According to the american gas association aga, the fullfuel cycle measure of energy use, also known as sourcebased energy measurement, refers to the energy consumed in the extraction, production, processing and transportation of the fuel to its point of use analyzing energy consumption in this way enables a more comprehensive calculation of the total energy use and greenhouse emissions. Electricity demand to 2050 under the new carbon price top and strong carbon price bottom scenarios 217 figure g. The nuclear fuel cycle represents the progression of nuclear fuel from creation to disposal. In the closedloop cycle, the fuel is sent to a recycling facility, where the assemblies are broken down and the. According to the american gas association aga, the full fuel cycle measure of energy use, also known as sourcebased energy measurement, refers to the energy consumed in the extraction, production, processing and transportation of the fuel to its point of use. The nuclear fuel cycle includes an erray of industrial operations, from uranium mining to the disposal of radioactive waste. Nuclear technology overview as their name implies, light water reactors use ordinary water for cooling the. The primary goal in spent fuel disposal is isolation, containment and retardation of radiotoxicity over geological timescales. Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering describes both the key features of the complete nuclear fuel cycle and the wealth of recent research in this important field. Topics include the available nuclear fuel resources uranium and thorium, extraction of the metals from the ore, fabrication of nuclear fuel, use of the fuel for power generation, and management and disposal of used fuel and radioactive wastes.
The nuclear fuel cycle is an industrial process involving various steps to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. From a technical perspective, there will be the lessons learned such as higher tsunami walls and the need for vented reactor containments that do not require emergency. The npt divides its members into nuclearweapon states nws china, france, russia, united kingdom and united states and nonnuclear weapons states nnws. Reprocessing is the initial separation of spent nuclear fuel into its constituent parts. Basic principles are fully explained, and topics such as environmental radioactivityboth naturally occurring and manmadeand safety issues are. This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors.
The nuclear fuel cycle refers to all activities that. Nuclear fuel cycle and proliferation 257 overview there is a close relationship between the technology and infrastructure necessary for a nation to produce nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and those necessary to produce nuclear weapons. The future of the nuclear fuel cycle mit energy initiative. Executive summary pdf full report pdf the implications on the world energy system, beyond shortterm price increases from greater use of oil and liquefied natural gas, are yet unknown and go beyond nuclear energy. Introduction to nuclear chemistry and fuel cycle separations. The implications on the world energy system, beyond shortterm price increases from greater use of oil and liquefied natural gas, are yet unknown and go beyond nuclear energy. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle third edition. The open fuel cycle also called the oncethrough fuel cycle is the predominant choice of fuel cycle within the united states. Chapter 4 fuel cycles 29 the description of a possible global growth scenario for nuclear power with or so gwe deployed worldwide must begin with some specification of the nuclear fuel cycles that will be in operation. Heat is created when nuclear fuel undergoes nuclear fission most nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile actinide elements that are capable of undergoing and sustaining nuclear fission. Nuclear fuel cycle cost calculator bulletin of the. Nuclear reactors are used as research tools, as systems for producing radioactive isotope s, and most prominently as energy sources for nuclear power plants.
Nuclear fuel cycle article about nuclear fuel cycle by. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle nuclear energy agency. This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power. It is intended for a broad audience of nonspecialist readers. The nuclear fuel cycle emirates nuclear energy corporation.
Comparison and screening of nuclear fuel cycle options in view of sustainable performance and waste management. This book covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from mining uranium ore to disposal of radioactive wastes. Copyright 2011 massachusetts institute of technology. Topics include the available nuclear fuel resources uranium and thorium, extraction of the metals from the ore, fabrication of nuclear fuel, use of the fuel for power generation, and management and disposal of. To provide an overview of the policy, legal, security, economic, institu. During the past halfcentury, the nuclear fuel cycle has generated approximately 1400 metric tons of plutonium and substantial quantities of the minor actinides, such as np, am, and cm. The three most relevant fissile isotopes are uranium233, uranium235 and plutonium239. As illustrated below, the nuclear fuel cycle typically includes the following stages. The nuclear fuel cycle is a series of steps that produce fuel for nuclear power reactors, which in turn generate electricity. Development and the fuel cycle considered that a fresh look at the nuclear fuel cycle options was timely. Nuclear fuel cycle international atomic energy agency. The increasing use of nuclear power puts stringent demands on fuel cycle activities and on understanding the behaviour of materials used in nuclear reactors. Nuclear fuel cycle article about nuclear fuel cycle by the. Then, the concentrations of desirable isotopes are increased in a series of steps called enrichment.
The fuel costs were calculated for a four batch fuel cycle with annual refuels, the fuel being discharged at an average burnup of 42. Estimated capital costs of key technologies to 2050 216 figure g. Analysis and management this 5day course provides a comprehensive overview of all activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, not only from a technical point of view, but also with regard to the economic, political, and social impacts. Nuclear reactor, any of a class of devices that can initiate and control a selfsustaining series of nuclear fission s. The iaea assists its member states with research and the sharing of experience and good practices. In the oncethrough cycle, the cooled fuel assemblies are prepared for dry storage onsite and then inde. The dualuse nature of the fuel cycle allows for the creation of civilian nuclear power as well as the production of weaponsgrade material for nuclear. The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. It is not really a cycle, in that the spent fuel is treated as waste when it is removed from the reactor and is not used further. The book covers all aspects of the nuclear fuel cyclefrom cradle to grave.1145 340 361 1283 1187 1131 289 6 267 1138 1259 275 1285 1424 1220 1186 468 470 318 961 525 110 117 1135 866 402 645