One of the proposed strategies to overcome this issue is to utilise oxygenated hydrocarbons derived from biomass sources that have undergone similar reforming. Introduction energy is an essential input for social development and economic growth. Design of process plant for producing hydrogen from steam. Cfd simulation of ethanol steam reforming system for. The maximum hydrogen yield possible from the steam reforming of ethanol is 6 moles of hydrogen, per the stoichiometric equation. In addition hydrogen can be produced from domestic feed stocks using a variety of process technologies. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of hydrocarbons.
Advances in reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Steam methane reforming is a widely used method of hydrogen production steam methane reforming is currently the least expensive way to produce hydrogen, and it accounts for nearly all commercially produced hydrogen in the united. This chapter introduces steam reforming, still the major method of largescale hydrogen gas production. Hydrogen is primarily produced by steam reforming of natural gas. Steam methane reforming steam methane reforming is the most common and least expensive method of producing hydrogen.
Thus we concentrated more on design of a complete process plant for hydrogen production from steam reforming of natural gas. The authors develop a small and simple steamreforming reactor in a homeuse size for ndodecane as a heavyhydrocarbons fuel. Steam reforming is endothermicthat is, heat must be supplied to the process for the reaction to proceed. Steam methane reformation currently produces about 95 percent of the hydrogen used in the united states. Hydrogen production by steam reforming chemical engineering. Under the thermal condition controlled by electric heaters and a gas burner with a thermal diffuser, the authors measure the insidetemperature profile and the hydrogen molecule ratio concentration r h2, together with the molecule ratios r ch4, r co and r co2 of other.
May 01, 2010 hydrogen production by steam reforming by ray elshout energy, systems engineering may 1, 2010 steam reforming of natural gas at petroleum refining facilities is the predominant means of producing hydrogen in the chemical process industries cpi. Pdf hydrogen production by sorption enhanced steam. The other half of current hydrogen production is used to convert heavy petroleum sources into lighter fractions suitable for use as fuels. Oil refineries mainly use steam methane reforming for hydrogen production, but they also use steam naphtha reforming when naphtha is available at less cost. The authors develop a small and simple steamreforming reactor in a homeuse size for such various heavyhydrocarbons fuels as noctane, ndecane, ntetradecane and nhexadecane in addition to ndodecane, and measure the insidetemperature profile and the molar fractions of main gas components such as h 2, ch 4, co and co 2. The commercial ici reforming catalyst is prone to be poisoned by. There are several methods for producing or extracting hydrogen. First, steam reforming of natural gas and its implementation as an industrial process is introduced. Currently the dominant technology for direct production is steam reforming from hydrocarbons. Another conventional technique is electrolysis, which applies.
C bond cleavage than mch, but the rate of hydrogen production was insufficient, although the rate was only slightly improved. Excess hydrogen is also recovered as a byproduct from various industrial processes. Process for steam reforming of hydrocarbons patent. This is an important technology pathway for nearterm hydrogen production. Steam reforming of methane, propane, hexane, cyclohexane, methanol, and ethanol using a nonequilibrium pulsed discharge was investigated under the conditions of atmospheric pressure and low temperature 393 k without the use of catalyst. The steam reforming of isooctane and methylcyclohexane mch was investigated over fe and nibased catalysts. The combination of steam reforming with carbon capture is briefly discussed in order to make the process carbonneutral. The two most common methods for producing hydrogen are steam methane reforming and electrolysis water splitting.
Under the thermal condition controlled by electric heaters and a gas burner with a thermal diffuser, the authors measure the insidetemperature profile and the hydrogenmolecule ratio concentration r h2, together with the molecule ratios r ch4, r. Steam methane reforming coal gasification partial oxidation of hydrocarbons biomass gasification biomass pyrolysis electrolysis thermochemical photochemical photobiological. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural. The paper will examine the possibilities of co2 capture in a steam reforming based plant, and its impact on the economics of hydrogen production. Femgal2o3 catalyst, effective for ch4 decomposition in the presence of o2co2, was active for steam reforming of isooctane, being a little easier to cause c. The two most common methods for producing hydrogen are steammethane reforming and electrolysis water splitting steammethane reforming is a widely used method of hydrogen production. The development of converting hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen rich gas products generally fall in one of following processes. Hydrogen production by catalytic reforming of liquid. Page 1 steam reforming of natural gas at petroleum refining facilities is the predominant means of producing hydrogen in the chemical process industries cpi. Hydrogen production via steam reforming with co2 capture. The challenges for catalysts applied to the reforming of logistic hydrocarbons are discussed in detail to reveal the specific needs for each of the main reforming processes used with such hydrocarbons. Steam reforming is a wellestablished technology that allows hydrogen production from hydrocarbons and water. In recent years advances in steam reforming have taken place to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production.
The hydrogen production technology can be divided into hydrocarbons reforming and nonhydrocarbons reforming technology 80. Smr is the most common and economical way to make hydrogen gas, which is used for electricity production, refining oil, countless chemical processes, and many more industrial applications. Introduction fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices that are used to convert the chemical energy stored in chemical fuels directly to. Hydrogen global production has so far been dominated by fossil fuels, with the most significant contemporary technologies being the steam reforming of hydrocarbons e. Many other methods are known including electrolysis and thermolysis in 2006, the united states was estimated to have a production capacity of 11 million tons of hydrogen. The main purpose of this technology is hydrogen production. Steammethane reforming is currently the least expensive way to produce hydrogen, and it accounts for nearly all commercially produced hydrogen in the united states. Steam reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons for hydrogen. Steam methane reforming is one of the main processes in hydrogen production, which has been used since 1930 byrne et al.
Steam reforming for hydrogen production reforming reactions the principal process for converting hydrocarbons into hydrogen is steam reforming 6,7 which involves the following reactions. Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Lca is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes. Steam methane reforming smr of natural gas accounts for about 50 per cent of the worlds hydrogen. This paper will deal with large scale hydrogen production in stationary plants using steam reforming. Today, hydrogen is mainly produced by steam reforming fossil fuels such as natural gas. It can be produced through different methods but the steam reforming of hydrocarbons mainly natural gas is the most commonly used. Currently the most dominant hydrogen production methods focus around steam reforming from hydrocarbons and electrolysis.
Hydrogen production from ethanol has advantages compared to other h2 production techniques, including steam reforming of methanol and hydrocarbons. Proceedings of the asme 2017 15th international conference on fuel cell science, engineering and technology collocated with the asme 2017 power conference joint with icope17, the asme 2017 11th international conference on energy sustainability, and the asme 2017 nuclear. The paper will focus on the design of a modern hydrogen production unit based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons using a foster wheeler terracewall furnace. Pure hydrogen is also produced by electrolysis of water, an energy demanding process. Hydrocarbon reforming processes are the dominant industrial technology for the production of hydrogen. Because hydrogen needs within various sectors of the cpi are at their highest levels in history, and are continuing to grow, an understanding of this method of hydrogen production and purification. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of hydrocarbons over. Reaction is accompanied by very unfavourable and undesired formation of different kinds of carbon deposits 1,2, particularly filamentary carbonaceous deposits, which, by mechanically destroying the catalyst, make its.
However, the existing production of hydrogen from natural gas steam reforming is not sustainable due to the depleting feedstock of natural gas. Thermocatalytic co2free production of hydrogen from. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomassderived. Steam reforming from hydrocarbons and electrolysis. Even though hydrogen generated from fossil feedstocks has the advantage of zerotailpipe emissions, the production chain still leaves a carbon footprint. Technoeconomic study of hydrogen production via steam. Also hydrogen containing compounds such as fossil fuels, biomass or even water can be a source of hydrogen.
However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars 2,3,4,5, steamreforming of bio. Sustainable hydrogen production by catalytic bioethanol. Hydrogen production by sorption enhanced steam reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons ethanol, glycerol, nbutanol and methanol. Smr reacts natural gas with steam at 750850c and high.
It will look at some of the key features of this design that deliver benefits in operation and maintenance, and the high availability that is essential in hydrogen production. Steammethane reformation currently produces about 95 percent of the hydrogen used in the united states. Steam reforming of natural gas the most economical and highly preferable process with the resources of eritrea is steam reforming of natural gas. Catalysts for hydrogen production from heavy hydrocarbons.
Hydrogen production from various heavy hydrocarbons by. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the united states is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. Cfd simulation of ethanol steam reforming system for hydrogen. Unlike hydrocarbons, ethanol is easier to reform and is also free of sulfur, which is a catalyst poison in the reforming of. The authors develop a small and simple steam reforming reactor in a homeuse size for ndodecane as a heavy hydrocarbons fuel.
Water electrolysis it can be defined in the simplest form by using two. Simplified flow diagram of hydrogen production from methane steam reforming aconventional process, b with psa modification. Smr can also be applied to other hydrocarbons such as ethane and naphtha. Hydrogen production by catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. In spite of their advantages, each of these processes is limited due to factors such as. Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen.
Direct fired tubular reformers have been the mainstay for hydrogen production. Excess hydrogen is also recovered as a by product from various industrial processes. C bond cleavage than mch, but the rate of hydrogen production was insufficient, although the rate was. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons is one of the most important methods of commercial production of hydrogen or synthesis gas. Hydrogen production from various heavy hydrocarbons by steam reforming. In steammethane reforming, methane reacts with steam under 325 bar pressure 1 bar 14. Other major sources include naphtha or oil reforming of refinery or other industrial offgases, partial oxidation of coal and other hydrocarbons, and steam cracking natural gas liquids such as ethane.
Hydrogen production by a steam reforming reactor for heavy. From an environmental point of view, steam reforming is not a sustainable method for hydrogen production due to the use of fossil fuelbased feedstock and the transformation of. Us3524819a us620373a us3524819da us3524819a us 3524819 a us3524819 a us 3524819a us 620373 a us620373 a us 620373a us 3524819d a us3524819d a us 3524819da us 3524819 a us3524819 a us 3524819a authority us united states prior art keywords catalyst steam reforming line flue gas bed prior art date 19670303 legal status the legal status is an. Steam reforming or steam methane reforming is a method for producing syngas hydrogen and carbon monoxide by reaction of hydrocarbons with water. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas. The oxidative reforming, which involves coupling reactions of steam reforming and partial oxidation, seems to be a good route for hydrogen production, since it usually lowers catalyst. The steam reforming hydrogen plant for many years, steam methane reforming smr has been the leading technology for generation of hydrogen in refining and petrochemical complexes. In each case, steam reforming proceeded efficiently and selectively and hydrogen was formed as a main product. Hydrogen production by catalytic reforming of gaseous.206 1160 459 1405 592 37 628 471 1036 870 303 830 454 132 390 557 582 267 1060 974 1466 60 782 1289 1204 365 461 182 1168 153 934 1228 236 1122 1207 116 1299